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New Progress in Research on Vaccine Against Chlamydia Infection
The advent of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine provides an important weapon for the prevention of the potential consequences of HPV, a common sexually transmitted infection, and also makes the prevention and screening of infection and related diseases gradually popular. Today, another common sexually transmitted infection is also expected to usher in vaccines to improve women's health.
Chlamydia infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections in the world. This kind of infection is also the main cause of female pelvic inflammatory disease and even infertility. Although antibiotic therapy is usually effective, the incidence of infection remains high, and chronic and recurrent infections are common.
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It is estimated that there are 131 million new infections each year, with the largest number of new cases found among adolescents and young people. Since the 1960s, researchers have been trying to develop a Chlamydia vaccine, but they have stopped at basic research and never entered the human research stage.
Half a century later, the research on the prevention of Chlamydia infection has finally begun. In phase 1 clinical trial, a Chlamydia vaccine, code-named cth522, was first shown to be safe in humans and capable of eliciting an immune response. The results were recently published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

(Screenshot source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases website)
The first phase of the trial was conducted by a team of the Danish National Serum Institute and Imperial College London in 35 healthy women who were not infected with Chlamydia. The women were divided into three groups, five receiving placeboes (saline) and 30 receiving two different formulations of the cth522 vaccine. The first formula is to add liposomes to promote the immune capacity of cells, and the other is to add aluminum hydroxide to promote antibody production.
A total of 32 people completed all five vaccination procedures. The two formulations of the cth522 vaccine elicited an immune response in 100% of the corresponding 15 subjects. Among them, the effect of adding liposome formula is always better, the antibody produced by the subjects is nearly five times more, and the long-term immunity-related indexes are better.
No one in the placebo group had an immune response. The safety of the cth522 vaccine was also good. The most common adverse events were mild local injection reactions, such as pain, which lasted an average of 2-4 days. The results of the first phase of the experiment are gratifying.
Whether this immune response can be reflected in the prevention of Chlamydia infection, the provision of protective immunity, and the long-term safety in a broader population, remains to be further tested in clinical trials. At present, the research team plans to promote the research with the cth522 vaccine of liposome formula, and the phase-2 trial is planned to start this autumn.
"The impact of Chlamydia infection on female health, infant health and susceptibility to other sexually transmitted diseases cannot be ignored, and the global medical needs for Chlamydia genitalia vaccines have not been met," said Peter Andersen, a professor at the Statens Serum Institute in Denmark, the corresponding author
"Although the Chlamydia vaccine is still in the early clinical stage, it has a promising future and is expected to have a huge public health impact," said the editorial published at the same time
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