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Endometrial Hyperplasia - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

What is endometrial hyperplasia?

Endometrial Hyperplasia is a condition that occurs due to the excessive growth of the lining and cells of the endometrium, i.e. the inner lining of the uterus. Two forms of endometrial hyperplasia exist: typical and atypical. In the typical form, the cells of the uterus have not undergone any changes as a result of the endometrial condition. In the atypical form of hyperplasia, the cells have undergone changes that might develop into uterine cancer if left untreated.

This lining, called the endometrium, thickens every month in preparation for pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the lining is shed. This shedding process is called a menstrual period or menstruation. Most women have a normal menstrual period approximately every 28 days. This entire process is controlled by two hormones: estrogen and progesterone.

If the hormones are out of balance or not available, then excessive growth of the cells lining the uterus may occur, which results in endometrial hyperplasia. Endometrial hyperplasia may be generally visible as a single and prevailing mass in the endometrial cavity. It may also diffuse the endometrium. It is a pathologig diagnosis.

What are endometrial hyperplasia causes?

The primary cause of this disease is the lack of balance between the two female hormones, i.e. oestrogen and progesterone. There may be cases when there is too much of oestrogen secretion, without corresponding exposure to progesterone. This is an abnormal condition, known as unopposed oestrogen. Too much oestrogen, and lack of progesterone leads to a situation of overgrowth of cells in the endometrium. This results in excessive thickening of the endometrium.

Apart from this reason, this disease can also be caused due to a number of chronic diseases such as diabetes, ovary syndrome and obesity. Tamofixen can also cause Endometrial Hyperplasia as it has a negative effect on the womb to oestrogen, since it is a breast cancer drug.

What are endometrial hyperplasia symptoms?

You may experience endometrial hyperplasia symptoms daily or just once in a while. At times, any of these symptoms can be severe:
- Acne
- Bleeding or spotting between menstrual periods
- Dryness of the vagina
- Excessive growth of body hair
- Heavy bleeding during your menstrual period (menorrhagia)
- Hot flashes or hot flushes
- Missed menstrual periods
- Mood swings
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Rapid heart rate (tachycardia)
- Severe fatigue
- Tenderness of the vagina

How is endometrial hyperplasia diagnosed?

This condition can be diagnosed through a number of methods, it may be done by taking a endometrial hyperplasia biopsy or ultrasound. It can also be done through curettage of the uterine cavity so as to obtain endometrial tissue for the histopathologic analysis. This diagnosis can be done by a pathologist who examines a sample of the endometrial tissue that is removed from the endometrial lining by dilation or biopsy. If the hyperplasia is without atypical cells, then it can even be detected by microscopically by an exam.

Transvaginal ultrasound can be performed to find out the level of thickness of the endometrial lining in the women. This type of ultrasound evaluates the endometrial thickness, which finds out whether the patient has endometrial cancer or not.

Endometrial hyperplasia can be easily detected through biopsy. This can be performed in a doctor’s office. The doctor performs a biopsy by inserting a narrow tube into the uterus to extract a sample of the cells. These cells are sent to the laboratory for examination.

How is endometial hyperplasia treated?

Endometrial Hyperplasia can be treated by Hormonal therapy that may include continuous progestin therapy or even hysterectomy. It can be also treated with TCM medicines. It may be treated through the consumption of medicines such as Povera which may be taken directly or through injections. It may be cured by a D&C – dilation and curettage test. They can also be treated in young women through intrauterine devices or birth control pills.

The treatment for endometrial hyperplasia depends on the stage of life in which this condition appears. It also depends on how severe this condition is.  Those who experience this problem at the time of menopause or perimenopause can be given a complete course of hormone replacement therapy.  If nothing else works out, the patient can resort to Hysterectomy. It is a surgical method of removing this condition.

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