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Orchitis - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Testis plays a very important role in men, and it is located in the scrotum, one on the left and one on the right. Testis secretes the male hormone, which plays an important role in the development and maturity of male reproductive organs and the appearance of male secondary sexual signs. And orchitis is one of the most common diseases in men.
 
Causes
 
Orchitis is a common male disease, which can occur from the newborn to the old man, most of which are young. Mumps orchitis is common in adolescence, and urogenital bacteria (e.g., E.coli) infection is the most common in elderly patients.
 
The cause of orchitis is complex. According to the pathogenic factors, orchitis can be divided into bacteria and virus infection, and noninfectious orchitis caused by injury and autoimmunity.
 
1. Infectious orchitis
 
Normally, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, pneumococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other pathogenic bacteria enter testis through vas deferens lumen. In addition, testis has rich blood and lymph supply, and pathogenic bacteria can also infect orchitis through the lymphatic system and blood.
 
2. Noninfectious orchitis
 
It can be caused by many factors. Orchitis can also cause testicular inflammation through some surgical trauma, tumor, vasectomy, cryptorchidism, and so on. Sometimes, the clinical symptoms are not obvious. Local or systemic radioisotope phosphorus irradiation of testis can also cause orchitis, destroy testicular tissue, and lead to orchitis.
 
Symptoms
 
Acute orchitis patients will have severe testicular, scrotal pain, pain can radiate to the groin, there is a sense of falling, and often accompanied by high fever, nausea, vomiting, and other manifestations. Physical examination showed that the testes in the scrotum were obviously swollen and tender.
 
In most cases, patients with chronic orchitis may not have obvious clinical manifestations, and a few patients will have dull pain and swelling in the testicles. Testosterone generally does not cause erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and other male diseases. Even if testicular atrophy occurs, the other testis will compensate, and the endocrine function of testis will not be greatly affected.
 

 
Diagnosis
 
1. If you have orchitis, which tests should you take?
 
Because the symptoms of orchitis are obvious, the diagnosis is not difficult. In addition, a physical examination is also very necessary. Patients should actively cooperate with the doctor's examination to describe the location and degree of pain in detail, which is helpful for the doctor to distinguish orchitis from other similar diseases, such as epididymitis, testicular torsion, hernia. In addition, the examination of salivary glands on both sides of the patient should not be omitted.
 
2. Can you check testicles by yourself?
 
The testis is very important for men, but because of the special location, testicular lesions are easy to be ignored. Therefore, it is suggested that males should learn how to check the testis in our daily life. You can use one hand to check the ipsilateral epididymis and testicles and use fingers and palms to check the size, texture, pain, and mass of epididymis and testicles.
 
In addition, the spermatic cord can also be checked. If there is pain or mass in the scrotum, it is advised to go to the urology department of the regular hospital immediately.
 
3. After being cured, what tests can help patients confirm whether the reproductive function has been damaged?
 
In general, testicular atrophy and infertility are less likely to occur after the treatment of orchitis. However, if there are related complications due to orchitis, the following inspection methods should be carried out after the inflammation is cured to check whether the fertility function is affected:
 
Routine physical examination
 
carefully check the testis, epididymis and vas deferens to find out whether there is abnormal testis size, epididymal nodule, etc. patients can go to the clinic for consultation;
 
 

 
Color ultrasonography of scrotum
 
The size and blood flow of testis and epididymis can be understood;
 
Semen routine examination
 
It needs to be carried out after the inflammation is cured, and abstinence is required for 3-5 days before the examination, so as to understand the quality of sperm, such as sperm vitality, deformity rate, etc.
 
Treatment
 
Western medicine treatment
 
The treatment of orchitis should be different according to the different pathogens. If it is caused by E.coli and other bacteria, it should be treated with sensitive bacteria. The treatment should be standardized. In principle, it should be given intravenously first and then orally. It is suggested not to abuse antibiotics or stop medications at will.
 
If the pathogen is a virus and the antibiotic treatment is ineffective, antiviral treatment such as interferon can be given. In addition, the general treatment also includes bed rest, no strenuous exercise, the elevation of the scrotum, oral analgesic tablets in case of severe pain, glucocorticoid should be used in case of severe inflammation to reduce the damage of inflammation to testicular function.
 
There are many kinds of pathogens causing orchitis, including bacteria and viruses. Among them, Escherichia coli and other bacteria are the most common causes. In this case, antibacterial treatment is needed. If it is orchitis caused by mumps virus, antibacterial treatment is ineffective. Therefore, not all orchitis should be treated with antimicrobial therapy, which should be selected according to the actual situation of patients.
 


 
Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) treatment
 
TCM believes that the occurrence of orchitis is caused by excessive body fluid and internal heat, Qi stagnation, and phlegm coagulation. Therefore, TCM mainly follows the principles of clearing heat and promoting the discharge of the body fluid, promoting Qi and blood circulation. After years of clinical repeated verification, the patent herbal medicine Diuretic and Anti-inflammatory Pill invented by Dr. Lee Xiaoping in Wuhan can completely meet the above treatment requirements.
 
The prescription of this pill contains more than 50 kinds of herbal ingredients of Chinese medicine, such as plantain, peach kernel, safflower, red peony, Dong Quai, Houttuynia cordata, etc. it has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, so it can relieve pain and promote urination, and has a great curative effect on orchitis caused by bacterial infection.
 
On the one hand, it can effectively kill bacteria and eliminate inflammation, and eliminate pathogens that cause pathological changes in the testicles. Besides, it can effectively eliminate swelling, pain and discomfort of testicles, burning and tingling of the urethra, and relieve discomfort symptoms of urethral mucosa.
 
Moreover, it can also help patients enhance immunity and prevent a recurrence. In addition, as a herbal formula, Diuretic and Anti-inflammatory Pill are made through reasonable compatibility. Compared with western medicine, it has the biggest advantage in treatment; that is, it will not produce any side effects and cause any damage to the human body.
 

 
Is surgery needed for you?
 
Generally, there is no need for orchitis patients to be treated by surgery. When the patients are treated with strict conservative treatment and the remission is not obvious, surgery should be considered. In addition, when testitis develops into a serious testicular abscess, surgical treatment should also be considered when there is no obvious improvement in antibacterial treatment.
 
Surgical treatment can drain the abscess or effusion of testicular tunica vaginalis, play the role of reducing pressure, drainage and promoting the regression of inflammation. After the operation, patients can also take Diuretic and Anti-inflammatory Pill for consolidation treatment.
 
Is orchitis easy to reoccur?
 
Orchitis is rarely recurred after cure; in short, the treatment of orchitis is not complex, early diagnosis and treatment is the key. If there are symptoms of suspected orchitis, you should see a doctor immediately.
 
Patients with orchitis should receive standard treatment, the treatment time is generally not less than two weeks, according to the recovery of patients, and then adjust as appropriate. Both chronic prostatitis and epididymitis can cause testicular inflammation by spreading. If the patient has a long history of chronic prostatitis or epididymitis, it also needs to be treated at the same time.
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