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From Inflammation to Infertility: Exploring the Link Between Orchitis and Azoospermia

The lobe of the testicles contains spermatogenic tubules, and spermatogenic cells of the spermatogenic tubule epithelium have the function of sperm production. Spermatogenic cells are a general term for various cells, including spermatogonium, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, and spermatocytes. The former, in turn, develop into the latter, eventually forming sperm. 


Moreover, the connective tissues between the spermatogenic tubules of the testicles contain testicular interstitial cells, which secrete androgens. Androgens are made up of various substances, including dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, and testosterone. 

Among them, testosterone content is the highest, and the biological activity is the strongest, which can promote the development of male reproductive organs, maintain male secondary sex characteristics, and promote sperm production. It can accelerate body growth, stimulate and sustain normal sexual desire, stimulate erythrocyte production, etc. So testicles are essential for sperm formation.

In severe orchitis cases, inflammation will result in the generation of sperm antibodies in the epididymis without prompt treatments. 

And antibodies can reach the blood, causing significant damage to the functions of the reproductive organs, eventually leading to severe spermatogenic dysfunction of the testicle and even causing severe atrophy of the testicle. In this case, it may lead to the complete loss of the spermatogenic function of the testicle, resulting in azoospermia.

At the same time, prostatitis may also induce epididymitis. Long-term chronic inflammation may lead to inflammatory blockage and narrowing in the epididymis and vas deferens, forming clogged azoospermia, thus affecting fertility.

Inflammation of the testicles, if left untreated, can lead to azoospermia, thus resulting in complete infertility in men. In addition, the common clinical manifestations of orchitis are testicular swelling, pain, fever, and sometimes chills. 

Difficulty in intercourse occurs when men suffer from acute orchitis, as blood vessel congestion caused by excitement will lead to pain in the inflamed testicles, and the pressure caused by intercourse and the rotation and elevation of the testicles. 

Orchitis can cause a variety of complications. Without prompt treatments, it is easy to induce other diseases, such as prostatitis, varicocele, endocrine diseases, nephritis and other kidney diseases, urinary diseases, malignant tumors, etc. When complications occur, treatments will be difficult to be performed, and lives will be threatened.

Therefore, whether from the point of view of sperm or men's health and life safety, patients developing orchitis should be treated in time.

1. General treatments. Rest in bed and elevation of the scrotum and testicle can reduce discomfort. Local cold compress (the first 3 days) or hot compress (3-5 days later) can reduce the symptoms of swelling and pain and prevent the spread of inflammation.

2. Medication. For acute inflammation of the testicle and the epididymis caused by bacterial infections that are common in young and middle-aged men, general antibiotic treatments can act effectively.

3. Surgical treatments. Surgical intervention is rarely performed for orchitis unless testicular torsion cannot be ruled out. For patients with poor effects of repeated antibiotic treatments, apparent local swelling, abscess formation, incision, drainage, or orchiectomy should be performed.

4. Oral herbal medicine or TCM physiotherapy. Patients can take Diuretic and Anti-inflammatory Pill to relieve inflammation and reduce pain and discomfort. This disease can also be treated with sitz baths with warm water.

5. Other treatments. 

Patients should:

1. Rest in bed appropriately to avoid fatigue in case of aggravating testicular swelling, pain, and discomfort.

2. Avoid eating spicy and stimulating food. Patients should eat more fresh fruits and vegetables and quit alcohol.

3. Drink enough water and avoid holding back urine.

4. Keep a happy mood and avoid being excessively nervous.

5. Some pathogens that cause orchitis to have certain infectiability, such as gonococcus, mycoplasma, chlamydia, etc. Therefore, before the cure of the disease, patients should temporarily avoid sex to prevent passing it on the sexual partners.

6. Maintain good living habits, have regular work and rest frequency, and avoid staying up late and being sedentary.

7. Pay attention to personal hygiene, clean external reproductive organs, and avoid urinary tract infections.

8. Wear loose underwear with good breathability to avoid the hot and humidity of private parts.

You may also be interested in:

How does Diuretic and Anti-inflamatory Pill Improve Sperm Quality?

With Orchitis, Can People Give Birth with Only One Testicle?

Orchitis Patients Still Has Symptoms After 6 Months, What Should You Do?

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