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Analysis on Epididymitis: The Enemy of Sperm
Compared with prostatitis, the "popularity" of epididymitis is much lower. However, as the saying goes, barking dogs don’t bite. Epididymitis is much more lethal to sperm than prostatitis. In all of the male infertility office visits, doctors found that most patients have epididymitis. How does epididymitis unconsciously cause damage to the sperm?
1. Interruption of nutritional supply
The epididymis is composed of more than ten testicular outlet tubes which converge at the posterior and upper parts of the testis and then curl backward and downward to the inferior pole of the testis. It is a slender small tube, which is vital to the sperm as the nutrition supply of sperm. After the sperm is produced in the abdomen of the testicle (seminiferous tubule), the vitality of the sperm is poor, which is unable to move. It can only lie in the testicle fluid produced by the testicle and be brought to the epididymis.
After careful cultivation of the epididymis for about two weeks, the sperm is fully developed and mature with high motility, and it also has the ability to recognize the eggs and the ability to fertilize the eggs. Before the sperm embarks on the road of fertilization, it mainly stays in the tail of epididymis to grow and reserve energy.
If the epididymis is unfortunately infected with pathogenic microorganisms, inflammation, congestion, and edema of the lumen, its ability to nurture sperm naturally decreases, or even strike. All kinds of nutrition secreted by epididymis will decrease significantly, which will weaken the ability of sperm in the epididymis, and eventually lead to a marked increase in the rate of inactive sperm or dead sperm in the semen. Even the ability of motile sperm is also weakened, leading to asthenospermia or necrospermia.
2. Reducing the sperm motility
When epididymis is infected by pathogens, some pathogens (e.g. E.coli) can direct damage sperm in epididymis duct, inhibit sperm activity or cause sperm to agglutinate, so as to reduce their motility. some pathogens (e.g. mycoplasma and chlamydia) are adsorbed on the sperm surface, which can reduce their activity. Toxins produced by pathogens can also poison the vulnerable sperm, and increase the mortality rate greatly.
At the same time, white blood cells, macrophages, and other bodyguards may injure or kill sperm by mistake, when eliminating pathogens. A large number of metabolites produced by the inflammatory reaction can also poison sperm, or change the living environment of sperm, resulting in decreased sperm motility, increased dead sperm, increased abnormal sperm rate and reduced sperm number.
3. Blocking the passage of sperm
If epididymitis is caused by gonococcus, tuberculosis, and other pathogens, it will not only cause inflammation and damage sperm but also easily cause the shrinkage or blockage of the epididymis lumen, leading to incomplete or complete obstruction of the vas deferens near the epididymis. This is an irreversible sequela of epididymitis. Sperm is blocked in the epididymal duct and can not go out. It can only slowly trap or be slaughtered, resulting in obstructive oligozoospermia or azoospermia.
4. Left sperm stranded
Epididymitis also plays an important role in the formation of anti-sperm antibodies in men. When epididymitis occurs, the body's self-defense system will act immediately. Leukocyte, lymphocyte and other immune cells and humoral immune substances enter the inflamed epididymis canal and produce an immune response to pathogens, forming antibodies against pathogens, which can also react with antigens on the sperm surface.
At the same time, the ability of immune cells to recognize the body's own tissues is significantly reduced. Immune reaction directly reacts with antigens in sperm surface or seminal plasma to form anti-sperm antibodies.
The anti-sperm antibody will be mixed in semen, chasing sperm closely, and the sperm is surrounded by them, or it will be firmly adsorbed on the sperm surface, so that sperm no place to hide. In this way, the motility of sperm decreases significantly, or several or dozens of agglomeration groups affect the forward motility of sperm. At the same time, antibodies can also enter the blood circulation, which has a wider range of adverse effects on the function of reproductive organs.
If the immune response of anti-sperm antibody acts on testicular tissues, it can form a special destructive effect, the abnormal spermatogenic function of testis and spermatogenic dysfunction azoospermia will occur.
Thus, the damage of epididymitis to sperm is serious and multifaceted. The main pathogens causing epididymitis are gonococcus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum, or epididymitis secondary to gonococcal urethritis and non-gonococcal urethritis.
Children and aging patients are mostly caused by common pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Proteus, Staphylococcus and so on. In addition, infectious diseases of other systems of the whole body can also be transmitted into the epididymis through the blood circulation to cause infection.
In order to avoid the damage to sperm and maintain reproductive health, the most effective measures are to eliminate unhygienic sexual behavior, avoid unprotected sex, and pay attention to the hygiene of external reproductive organs. If urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, seminal vesicle adenitis and other urinary and reproductive organ inflammation occur, timely and effective treatment should be carried out to avoid involving the epididymis.
For patients with typical symptoms, they should first go to the urology department or male Department of the regular hospital for the corresponding examination. If bacteria or Chlamydia and mycoplasma are positive, it is suggested to select sensitive antibiotics for a drug sensitivity test.
1. If there are testicular cysts and testicular nodules, patients with small size and asymptomatic do not need to be treated, but if the condition is severe, surgical resection can be considered, and Diuretic and Anti-inflammatory Pill can be used as consolidation therapy after surgery. 
2. If the effect of the conventional medication is not good, patients can also try conservative natural medicine Diuretic and Anti-inflammatory Pill, which can remove pathogens causing pathological changes of the epididymis, effectively sterilize and eliminate the inflammation, pain, and discomfort of patients, and fundamentally treat epididymitis. In addition, it also has a certain therapeutic effect on the complications of an epididymal cyst and epididymal tubercle.
Once epididymitis occurs, we must actively seek the help of doctors as soon as possible, and receive prompt and thorough treatment. I wish you recover soon.
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