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Can Orchitis Cause Hematuria?
Orchitis is a prevalent inflammation in the male reproductive system, causing patients pain and discomfort in the testicular area and potentially triggering other symptoms.


So, can orchitis cause hematuria?

Generally speaking, the typical symptoms of orchitis mainly focus on the testicular area, such as testicular swelling, pain that may radiate to the groin area, and redness and swelling of the scrotal skin. Systemic symptoms like fever and chills accompany them. In most cases, simple orchitis does not directly lead to the appearance of hematuria.

However, under certain particular circumstances, orchitis may indirectly cause hematuria:

If orchitis is not promptly and effectively treated, inflammation may spread and involve adjacent tissues and organs such as the epididymis and spermatic cord. When inflammation further spreads to the urinary system, such as the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra, causing inflammation or injury in these areas, hematuria may occur.

For example, orchitis can lead to epididymo-orchitis, where inflammation may obstruct the vas deferens, causing poor semen drainage and even epididymal abscess. 

During epididymal abscess, small blood vessels in the epididymal wall may rupture, and blood may mix with semen during ejaculation, which may be mistaken for hematuria. Strictly speaking, this is not true hematuria.

Suppose orchitis is caused by specific pathogens such as tuberculosis bacilli. In that case, tuberculous orchitis can not only cause lesions in the testicles but may also spread hematogenously to other parts of the urinary system, such as renal tuberculosis. 

During renal tuberculosis, renal tissues are destroyed, forming cavities and ulcers, and ruptured blood vessels can lead to noticeable hematuria.

Additionally, severe cases of orchitis may lead to necrosis of testicular tissue and the formation of abscesses. When the abscess ruptures, pus may enter surrounding blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, circulating through the bloodstream to the urinary system, causing hematuria.

However, it is essential to clarify that hematuria does not necessarily mean it is caused by orchitis.

There are many causes of hematuria, including other diseases of the urinary system, such as kidney stones, ureteral stones, bladder stones, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, bladder cancer, and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Therefore, when a patient presents with symptoms of hematuria, doctors typically conduct detailed inquiries, physical examinations, laboratory tests such as urine analysis, complete blood count, blood biochemistry, microbiological tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scans, MRI scans, etc., to determine the true cause of hematuria and assess whether it is related to orchitis.

Doctors rely on laboratory tests to diagnose orchitis. In addition to assessing the patient's symptoms and signs, a complete blood count may show an elevated white blood cell count, indicating an inflammatory response; microbiological tests can help identify the type of pathogen causing the infection.

The key to treating orchitis lies in early diagnosis and timely treatment:

Depending on the type of pathogen, appropriate antibiotics or antiviral drugs are selected for anti-infective treatment. For chronic orchitis, Diuretic and Anti-inflammatory Pill can effectively eliminate inflammation, relieve symptoms of hematuria, and minimize side effects.

In addition to timely treatment, lifestyle adjustments are crucial for recovery from orchitis:

Patients should rest and avoid excessive fatigue and vigorous exercise. They should also ensure an adequate amount of sleep to enhance the body's resistance. Supporting the scrotum with a scrotal supporter or wearing tight underwear can alleviate testicular swelling and pain during illness.

In terms of diet, it is recommended to maintain a bland diet with plenty of fresh vegetables and fruits, avoid spicy, greasy, and stimulating foods, and abstain from smoking and alcohol. Drinking plenty of water promotes urine excretion, flushes the urethra, and helps reduce the proliferation of pathogens.

During treatment, sexual activity should be avoided to prevent aggravating the condition. After recovery, sexual activity should be moderate, avoiding excessive frequency or roughness.

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