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How Does Orchitis Trigger Infertility?(2)

The Sertoli cells express TNF - α receptors. TNF - α can induce the mouse Sertoli cells to express Fas in vitro, which can be activated by the FasL effect cells, leading to the apoptosis of Sertoli cells and destroying the blood-testis barrier. The expression of Sertoli cells induced by inflammatory factors can promote the adhesion between immunocompetent cells and Sertoli cells and participate in the pathological process of orchitis.

When infected by cells, pathogenic bacteria can reduce sperm motility, increase the number of abnormal sperm (including agglutination effect), reduce the ability of sperm to pass through the cervix, and change the biochemical environment of seminal plasma, thus having adverse effects on sperm function.
When the reproductive tract is inflamed, the increase of leukocyte numbers can significantly reduce the total number of sperm, sperm viability, sperm motility speed, and a total number of active sperm.
The increased level of ROS in leukocytes can attack the sperm cell membrane and cause lipid peroxidation, which is conducive to the activation of phospholipase A2, the production of lysophospholipin, the destruction of lipid in the sperm cell membrane and the loss of sperm viability.
The inflammatory damage of orchitis can damage the blood-testis barrier, induce the body to produce an active immune response to its own sperm, and produce an anti-sperm antibody (AS-AB), leading to infertility.

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