This is the most common cause of orchitis. Statistics show that 1 / 5 of mumps patients will develop into orchitis. The main manifestations of mumps are testicular swelling and pain, swelling, and fever.
The common cause of orchitis is closely related to bacterial infection. In fact, the testis itself is rarely infected by bacteria, which is usually caused by the inflammation of the epididymis adjacent to it, so it is also called epididymo-orchitis. The common pathogenic bacteria are Proteus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus and so on. The routes of infection are mainly divided into three categories:
1. Direct injection
Infection of prostate and seminal vesicle, bacteria enter epididymis and testis along vas deferens.
2. Blood infection
Infection from the body focuses on blood flow to the testis.
Infection of the lower urinary tract and external genitalia can enter the deep and shallow lymphatics through seminal vesicle lymphatics.
If the scrotum is damaged, haematoma can occur in the testicle, epididymis and scrotum. And epididymis is fragile and prone to diseases, so acute epididymitis often occurs. Acute epididymitis can spread inflammation to the testes, causing orchitis, but this case is rare. Sometimes the operation of urethral instruments or long-term indwelling catheters can also cause orchitis.
In addition, if the testis is irradiated by radioisotope phosphorus, it can also trigger orchitis, leading to testicular damage.
Many factors can increase the risk of orchitis. For orchitis caused by non-sexual transmission, risk factors include:
1. Not vaccinated against mumps;
2. Over 45 years old;
3. Recurrent urinary tract infection;
4. An operation involving genitourinary tract;
5. Congenital malformation of the urinary tract;
6. High-risk sexual behaviors that can lead to sexually transmitted diseases can greatly increase the risk of orchitis related to sexually transmitted diseases, such as:
Multiple sexual partners;
Having sexual relations with people with venereal diseases;
No protected sex;
History of venereal disease;