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What Is Noninfectious Orchitis?

Orchitis can be divided into infectious orchitis caused by bacteria and virus infection and noninfectious orchitis caused by injury and autoimmunity. Chronic orchitis is mainly caused by the incomplete treatment of acute non-specific orchitis. 
 
It can also be caused by mould, spirochete, and parasite infection, such as syphilis of testis, and granulomatous orchitis can occur in patients with testicular trauma. Local or systemic radioisotope phosphorus irradiation of testis can also cause orchitis and destroy testicular tissue.
 
Recently, it has been found that there are many factors of orchitis in male infertility. Trauma, a vasectomy can cause immune orchitis. The activated inflammatory cells in orchitis secrete a large number of inflammatory factors, which affect the function and activity of spermatogenic cells, and then affect male reproductive ability.
 
Orchitis caused by trauma
 
Patients with granulomatous orchitis often have a history of testicular damage. The scrotum or testis had impact damage, which resulted in scrotum hematoma or testicular laceration. Even if the wound healed, the testis would be in a state of insufficient blood supply for a long time, and atrophy would occur. Therefore, it may be that after the germ cells are damaged, some substances are produced or released to cause the formation of granuloma.

 
Clinically, the onset is acute, there will be obvious inflammatory swelling and pain of testis, and it can also progress slowly, like a testicular tumor. The sexual dysfunction caused by testicular atrophy needs to be examined under the guidance of the hospital specialist, to make a clear diagnosis of the disease location and pathological changes, and to formulate a targeted treatment.
 
Autoimmune orchitis
 
The study of the reproductive, immune system confirmed that there was a blood-testis barrier between blood and testis. Once the blood-testis barrier is damaged by biological, chemical, and physical factors, the sperm antigen will leak out. Mononuclear phagocytes enter the testis or epididymis. 
 
After phagocytizing the sperm, the sperm antigen will be digested, and then the antigen information will be transmitted to the lymphocytes to generate a humoral or cellular immune response, which will destroy the testis, epididymis, vas deferens and other tissues, causing autoimmunity orchitis, resulting in infertility.
 
Prevention
 
1. To avoid cold, frequent sex, holding urine, etc., are easy to cause sympathetic excitement, and induce dysuria.
 

2. Avoid eating stimulating foods, such as high-fat food, high cholesterol food. The high-fat food can cause the secretion of the inflammation site to increase, make the inflammation further infiltrate and spread, or aggravate the symptoms.

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