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Irregular vaginal bleeding

Vaginal bleeding is a condition that many women encounter. It can be divided into two categories: physiological and pathological vaginal bleeding. The former one which includes normal menstruation and postpartum lochia discharge belongs to the normal physiological category. And it won't endanger female health. However, pathological vaginal bleeding is different. It not only does damage to women, but also is a manifestation of physical illness.
Irregular vaginal bleeding refers to the vaginal bleeding that occurs either at the wrong time during the month or in inappropriate amounts. It can be caused by many factors such as ovarian endocrine dysfunction, abnormal pregnancy, cancer, reproductive tract inflammation and some systemic diseases.
Irregular vaginal bleeding can be divided into the following types: 
1.The menstrual flow increases and menstruation is prolonged, but the menstrual cycle is normal. This can be a sign of uterine fibroids, adenomyosis and uterine bleeding. In addition, women who have intrauterine ring may also suffer from increased menstrual flow. 
2.There is decreased amount or duration of menstrual flow (hypomenorrhea). Hypomenorrhea can be caused by overactive thyroid function, certain kidney diseases and some oral contraceptive pills.
3.The vaginal bleeding lasts for a long time. This is mostly caused by genital malignancies such as cervical and endometrial cancer.
4.Vaginal bleeding occurs during or after sex. Females may have diseases like cervical erosion, cervical polyps, cancer or submucosal fibroids. 
5.Spot appears before or after the menstruation. A small amount of bloody discharge before or after the menstruation is usually caused by ovarian dysfunction. However, it can also be caused by endometriosis
6.Females have bleeding between menstrual periods (intermenstrual bleeding). Women who are ovulating normally can experience light bleeding between menstrual periods. In addition, oral contraceptive pills, IUD, psychological stress, certain medications such as anticoagulant drugs, and fluctuations in hormone levels can also be the reason for intermenstrual bleeding.
7. Women have irregular vaginal bleeding after menopause. If the woman is in childbearing age, she is very likely to have pregnancy-related diseases such as miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy and hydatid mole. However, if the woman is in postmenopausal period, she is more likely to have cancer.  
8.Paroxysmal vaginal bleeding occurs. This means females may suffer from Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma (PFTC).


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